Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- Molecular characterization of the gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner isolated from Brazilian ecosystems and showing pathogenic activity against mosquito larvae of medical importance.
Molecular characterization of the gene profile of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner isolated from Brazilian ecosystems and showing pathogenic activity against mosquito larvae of medical importance. [Journal Article]Acta Trop 2017 Aug 16.ATSoares-da-Silva J, Queirós SG, de Aguiar JS, et al. The occurrence of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles potentiate the spread of several diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, urban yellow fever, filarias...The occurrence of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles potentiate the spread of several diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, urban yellow fever, filariasis, and malaria, a situation currently existing in Brazil and in Latin America. Control of the disease vectors is the most effective tool for containing the transmission of the pathogens causing these diseases, and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis has been widely used and has shown efficacy over many years. However, new B. thuringiensis (Bt) strains with different gene combinations should be sought for use as an alternative to Bti and to prevent the resistant insects selected. Aiming to identify diversity in the Bt in different Brazilian ecosystems and to assess the pathogenicity of this bacterium to larvae of Ae. aegypti, C. quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles darlingi, Bt strains were obtained from the Amazon, Caatinga (semi-arid region), and Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) biomes and tested in pathogenicity bioassays in third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti under controlled conditions in the laboratory. The isolates with larvicidal activity to larvae of Ae. aegypti were used in bioassays with the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and An. darlingi and characterized according to the presence of 14 cry genes (cry1, cry2, cry4, cry10, cry11, cry24, cry32, cry44Aa, cry1Ab, cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba), six cyt genes (cyt1, cyt2, cyt1Aa, cyt1Ab, cyt2Aa and cyt2Ba), and the chi gene. Four hundred strains of Bt were isolated: 244 from insects, 85 from Amazon soil, and 71 from the Caatinga biome. These strains, in addition to the 153 strains isolated from Cerrado soil and obtained from the Entomopathogenic Bacillus Bank of Maranhão, were tested in bioassays with Ae. aegypti larvae. A total of 37 (6.7%) strains showed larvicidal activity, with positive amplification of the cry, cyt, and chi genes. The most frequently amplified genes were cry4Aa and cry4Ba, both occurring in 59.4% in these strains, followed by cyt1Aa and cyt2Aa, with 56.7% and 48% occurrence, respectively. Twelve (2.2%) strains that presented 100% mortality within 24h were used in bioassays to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Ae. aegypti larvae. Two strains (BtMA-690 and BtMA-1114) showed toxicity equal to that of the Bti standard strain, and the same LC50 value (0.003mg/L) was recorded for the three bacteria after 48h of exposure. Detection of the presence of the Bt strains that showed pathogenicity for mosquito larvae in the three biomes studied was possible. Therefore, these strains are promising for the control of insect vectors, particularly the BtMA-1114 strain, which presents a gene profile different from that of Bti but with the same toxic effect.
- Leptospirosis: molecular trial path and immunopathogenesis correlated with dengue, malaria and mimetic hemorrhagic infections.
Leptospirosis: molecular trial path and immunopathogenesis correlated with dengue, malaria and mimetic hemorrhagic infections. [Journal Article, Review]Acta Trop 2017 Aug 16.ATPriya SP, Sakinah S, Sharmilah K, et al. Immuno-pathogenesis of leptospirosis can be recounted well by following its trail path from entry to exit, while inducing disastrous damages in various tissues of host. Dysregulated, inappropriate and ...Immuno-pathogenesis of leptospirosis can be recounted well by following its trail path from entry to exit, while inducing disastrous damages in various tissues of host. Dysregulated, inappropriate and excessive immune responses are unanimously blamed in fatal leptospirosis. The inherent abilities of the pathogen and inabilities of the host were debated targeting the severity of the disease. Hemorrhagic manifestation through various mechanisms leading to a fatal end is observed when this disease is unattended. The similar vascular destructions and hemorrhage manifestations are noted in infections with different microbes in endemic areas. The simultaneous infection in host with more than one pathogen or parasite is referred as coinfection. Notably, common endemic infections such as leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya and malaria, harbor favorable environments to flourish in similar climates, which is aggregated with stagnated water and aggravated with the poor personal and environmental hygiene of the inhabitants. These factors aid the spread of pathogens and parasites to humans and potential vectors, eventually leading to outbreaks of public health relevance. Malaria, dengue and chikungunya need mosquitoes as vectors, in contrast with leptospirosis, which directly invades human, although the environmental bacterial load is maintained through other mammals, such as rodents. The more complicating issue is that infections by different pathogens exhibiting similar symptoms but require different treatment management. The current review explores different pathogens expressing specific surface proteins and their ability to bind with array of host proteins with or without immune response to enter into the host tissues and their ability to evade the host immune responses to invade and their affinity to certain tissues leading to the common squeal of hemorrhage. Furthermore, at the host level, the increased susceptibility and inability of the host to arrest the pathogens' and parasites' spread in different tissues, various cytokines accumulated to eradicate the microorganisms and their cellular interactions, the antibody dependent defense and the susceptibility of individual organs bringing the manifestation of the diseases were explored. Lastly, we provided a discussion on the immune trail path of pathogenesis from entry to exit to narrate the similarities and dissimilarities among various hemorrhagic fevers mentioned above, in order to outline future possibilities of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of coinfections, with special reference to endemic areas.
- Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria and arbovirus risk in Tanzania: a sensitivity analysis.
Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria and arbovirus risk in Tanzania: a sensitivity analysis. [Journal Article]J Epidemiol Community Health 2017 Aug 19.JEHomenauth E, Kajeguka D, Kulkarni MA Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently adopted for creating socioeconomic proxies in order to investigate the independent effects of wealth on disease status. The guidelines and methods for t...Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently adopted for creating socioeconomic proxies in order to investigate the independent effects of wealth on disease status. The guidelines and methods for the creation of these proxies are well described and validated. The Demographic and Health Survey, World Health Survey and the Living Standards Measurement Survey are examples of large data sets that use PCA to create wealth indices particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where quantifying wealth-disease associations is problematic due to the unavailability of reliable income and expenditure data. However, the application of this method to smaller survey data sets, especially in rural LMIC settings, is less rigorously studied.In this paper, we aimed to highlight some of these issues by investigating the association of derived wealth indices using PCA on risk of vector-borne disease infection in Tanzania focusing on malaria and key arboviruses (ie, dengue and chikungunya). We demonstrated that indices consisting of subsets of socioeconomic indicators provided the least methodologically flawed representations of household wealth compared with an index that combined all socioeconomic variables. These results suggest that the choice of the socioeconomic indicators included in a wealth proxy can influence the relative position of households in the overall wealth hierarchy, and subsequently the strength of disease associations. This can, therefore, influence future resource planning activities and should be considered among investigators who use a PCA-derived wealth index based on community-level survey data to influence programme or policy decisions in rural LMIC settings.
- Comprehensive proteome profiling in Aedes albopictus to decipher Wolbachia-arbovirus interference phenomenon.
Comprehensive proteome profiling in Aedes albopictus to decipher Wolbachia-arbovirus interference phenomenon. [Journal Article]BMC Genomics 2017 Aug 18; 18(1):635.BGSaucereau Y, Valiente Moro C, Dieryckx C, et al. The results of our proteome profiling have provided new insights into the molecular pathways involved in tripartite Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction and may help defining targets for the bett...Aedes albopictus is a vector of arboviruses that cause severe diseases in humans such as Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika fevers. The vector competence of Ae. albopictus varies depending on the mosquito population involved and the virus transmitted. Wolbachia infection status in believed to be among key elements that determine viral transmission efficiency. Little is known about the cellular functions mobilized in Ae. albopictus during co-infection by Wolbachia and a given arbovirus. To decipher this tripartite interaction at the molecular level, we performed a proteome analysis in Ae. albopictus C6/36 cells mono-infected by Wolbachia wAlbB strain or Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and bi-infected.We first confirmed significant inhibition of CHIKV by Wolbachia. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by nano liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 600 unique differentially expressed proteins mostly related to glycolysis, translation and protein metabolism. Wolbachia infection had greater impact on cellular functions than CHIKV infection, inducing either up or down-regulation of proteins associated with metabolic processes such as glycolysis and ATP metabolism, or structural glycoproteins and capsid proteins in the case of bi-infection with CHIKV. CHIKV infection inhibited expression of proteins linked with the processes of transcription, translation, lipid storage and miRNA pathways.The results of our proteome profiling have provided new insights into the molecular pathways involved in tripartite Ae. albopictus-Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction and may help defining targets for the better implementation of Wolbachia-based strategies for disease transmission control.
- Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus.
Vector competence of populations of Aedes aegypti from three distinct cities in Kenya for chikungunya virus. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 18; 11(8):e0005860.PNAgha SB, Chepkorir E, Mulwa F, et al. Populations of Ae. aegypti from Mombasa, Nairobi, and Kisumu were all competent laboratory vectors of CHIKV. Viremia of the infectious blood meal was an important factor in Ae. aegypti susceptibility a...In April, 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Kenya and eventually spread to the islands in the Indian Ocean basin, South-East Asia, and the Americas. The virus, which is often associated with high levels of viremia in humans, is mostly transmitted by the urban vector, Aedes aegypti. The expansion of CHIKV presents a public health challenge both locally and internationally. In this study, we investigated the ability of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from three distinct cities in Kenya; Mombasa (outbreak prone), Kisumu, and Nairobi (no documented outbreak) to transmit CHIKV.Aedes aegypti mosquito populations were exposed to different doses of CHIKV (105.6-7.5 plaque-forming units[PFU]/ml) in an infectious blood meal. Transmission was ascertained by collecting and testing saliva samples from individual mosquitoes at 5, 7, 9, and 14 days post exposure. Infection and dissemination were estimated by testing body and legs, respectively, for individual mosquitoes at selected days post exposure. Tissue culture assays were used to determine the presence of infectious viral particles in the body, leg, and saliva samples. The number of days post exposure had no effect on infection, dissemination, or transmission rates, but these rates increased with an increase in exposure dose in all three populations. Although the rates were highest in Ae. aegypti from Mombasa at titers ≥106.9 PFU/ml, the differences observed were not statistically significant (χ2 ≤ 1.04, DF = 1, P ≥ 0.31). Overall, about 71% of the infected mosquitoes developed a disseminated infection, of which 21% successfully transmitted the virus into a capillary tube, giving an estimated transmission rate of about 10% for mosquitoes that ingested ≥106.9 PFU/ml of CHIKV. All three populations of Ae. aegypti were infectious as early as 5-7 days post exposure. On average, viral dissemination only occurred when body titers were ≥104 PFU/ml in all populations.Populations of Ae. aegypti from Mombasa, Nairobi, and Kisumu were all competent laboratory vectors of CHIKV. Viremia of the infectious blood meal was an important factor in Ae. aegypti susceptibility and transmission of CHIKV. In addition to viremia levels, temperature and feeding behavior of Ae. aegypti may also contribute to the observed disease patterns.
- Scaling Up of an Innovative Intervention to Reduce Risk of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Transmission in Uruguay in the Framework of an Intersectoral Approach with and without Community Participation.
Scaling Up of an Innovative Intervention to Reduce Risk of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika Transmission in Uruguay in the Framework of an Intersectoral Approach with and without Community Participation. [Journal Article]Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug 07.AJBasso C, García da Rosa E, Lairihoy R, et al. To contribute to the prevention of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, a process of scaling up an innovative intervention to reduce Aedes aegypti habitats, was carried out in the city of Salto (Uruguay) bas...To contribute to the prevention of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, a process of scaling up an innovative intervention to reduce Aedes aegypti habitats, was carried out in the city of Salto (Uruguay) based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the eco-bio-social determinants. The intervention in one-third of the city included the distributions of plastic bags for all households to collect all discarded water containers that were recollected by the Ministry of Health and the Municipality vector control services. The results were evaluated in 20 randomly assigned clusters of 100 households each, in the intervention and control arm. The intervention resulted in a significantly larger decrease in the number of pupae per person index (as a proxy for adult vector abundance) than the corresponding decrease in the control areas (both areas decreased by winter effects). The reduction of intervention costs ("incremental costs") in relation to routine vector control activities was 46%. Community participation increased the collaboration with the intervention program considerably (from 48% of bags handed back out of the total of bags delivered to 59% of bags handed back). Although the costs increased by 26% compared with intervention without community participation, the acceptability of actions by residents increased from 66% to 78%.
- Screening for Chikungunya virus infection in aged people: Development and internal validation of a new score.
Screening for Chikungunya virus infection in aged people: Development and internal validation of a new score. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(8):e0181472.PlosGodaert L, Bartholet S, Najioullah F, et al. This score shows good diagnostic performance and good internal validation and could be helpful to screen aged people for CHIKV infection.This study aimed to derive and validate a score for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection screening in old people admitted to acute care units.This study was performed in the Martinique University Hospitals from retrospective cases. Patients were aged 65+, admitted to acute care units for suspected CHIKV infection in 2014, with biological testing using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). RT-PCR was used as the gold standard. A screening score was created using adjusted odds ratios of factors associated with positive RT-PCR derived from a multivariable logistic regression model. A ROC curve was used to determine the best cut-off of the score. Bootstrap analysis was used to evaluate its internal validity.In all, 687 patients were included, 68% with confirmed CHIKV infection, and 32% with laboratory-unconfirmed CHIKV infection. Mean age was 80±8 years, 51% were women. Four variables were found to be independently associated with positive RT-PCR (fever: 3 points; arthralgia of the ankle: 2 points; lymphopenia: 6 points; absence of neutrophil leucocytosis: 10 points). The best cut-off was score ≥12; sensitivity was 87% (83%-90%) and specificity was 70% (63%-76%).This score shows good diagnostic performance and good internal validation and could be helpful to screen aged people for CHIKV infection.
- Chikungunya: an emerging viral infection with varied clinical presentations in Bangladesh: Reports of seven cases.
Chikungunya: an emerging viral infection with varied clinical presentations in Bangladesh: Reports of seven cases. [Journal Article]BMC Res Notes 2017 Aug 15; 10(1):410.BRRahim MA, Uddin KN In spite of being a self-limiting disease, chikungunya may have different presentations and a protracted clinical course. During the febrile episode, exclusion of dengue is equally important. Physician...Publisher Full TextChikungunya is an emerging and rapidly spreading viral infection in many parts of the world including Bangladesh. It shares many epidemiological and clinical characteristics with dengue. So, a sound knowledge is required for its detection and differentiation from dengue, specially in endemic regions.We present seven confirmed cases of chikungunya having different clinical presentations occurring among middle aged males and females from different socio-economic background in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. All patients had fever and aches and pains. Less common features were rash, diarrhea, vomiting and altered liver biochemistry. Dengue was excluded in six patients. Paracetamol remained the mainstay of treatment during febrile periods, but over 50% of the patients had prolonged joint symptoms requiring non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.In spite of being a self-limiting disease, chikungunya may have different presentations and a protracted clinical course. During the febrile episode, exclusion of dengue is equally important. Physicians should be aware of the condition and public health initiatives are necessary to break the disease transmission.
- Chikungunya virus: A new endemic in Pakistan?
Chikungunya virus: A new endemic in Pakistan? [Letter]J Infect Public Health 2017 Aug 11.JIDawani O, Syed MJ, Shehzad AM, et al. Publisher Full Text
- An economic evaluation of vector control in the age of a dengue vaccine.
An economic evaluation of vector control in the age of a dengue vaccine. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 14; 11(8):e0005785.PNFitzpatrick C, Haines A, Bangert M, et al. Economic evaluation of the first-ever dengue vaccine is ongoing. However, even under very optimistic assumptions about a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy, our results suggest that sus...Publisher Full TextDengue is a rapidly emerging vector-borne Neglected Tropical Disease, with a 30-fold increase in the number of cases reported since 1960. The economic cost of the illness is measured in the billions of dollars annually. Environmental change and unplanned urbanization are conspiring to raise the health and economic cost even further beyond the reach of health systems and households. The health-sector response has depended in large part on control of the Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus (mosquito) vectors. The cost-effectiveness of the first-ever dengue vaccine remains to be evaluated in the field. In this paper, we examine how it might affect the cost-effectiveness of sustained vector control.We employ a dynamic Markov model of the effects of vector control on dengue in both vectors and humans over a 15-year period, in six countries: Brazil, Columbia, Malaysia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Thailand. We evaluate the cost (direct medical costs and control programme costs) and cost-effectiveness of sustained vector control, outbreak response and/or medical case management, in the presence of a (hypothetical) highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy using a (non-hypothetical) medium-efficacy vaccine.Sustained vector control using existing technologies would cost little more than outbreak response, given the associated costs of medical case management. If sustained use of existing or upcoming technologies (of similar price) reduce vector populations by 70-90%, the cost per disability-adjusted life year averted is 2013 US$ 679-1331 (best estimates) relative to no intervention. Sustained vector control could be highly cost-effective even with less effective technologies (50-70% reduction in vector populations) and in the presence of a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy using a medium-efficacy vaccine.Economic evaluation of the first-ever dengue vaccine is ongoing. However, even under very optimistic assumptions about a highly targeted and low cost immunization strategy, our results suggest that sustained vector control will continue to play an important role in mitigating the impact of environmental change and urbanization on human health. If additional benefits for the control of other Aedes borne diseases, such as Chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika fever are taken into account, the investment case is even stronger. High-burden endemic countries should proceed to map populations to be covered by sustained vector control.