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Chikungunya Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".
    The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas". [Journal Article, Review]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan; 12(1):e0005581.PNHotez PJ Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected para...Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  • Emerging souvenirs - clinical presentation of the returning traveller with imported arbovirus infections in Europe.
    Emerging souvenirs - clinical presentation of the returning traveller with imported arbovirus infections in Europe. [Journal Article]Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Jan 12.CMEckerle I, Briciu V, Ergonul O, et al. Early diagnosis of travel-imported cases is important to reduce the risk of localized outbreaks of tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya and the risk of local transmission from body fluid...Publisher Full TextArboviruses are an emerging group of viruses that are causing increasing health concerns globally, including in Europe. Clinical presentation usually consists of a non-specific febrile illness that may be accompanied by rash, arthralgia and arthritis and/or with neurological or haemorrhagic syndromes. The range of differential diagnoses of other infectious and non-infectious aetiologies is broad, presenting a challenge for physicians. While knowledge of the geographic distribution of pathogens and the current epidemiological situation, incubation periods, exposure risk factors and vaccination history can help guide the diagnostic approach, the non-specific and variable clinical presentation can delay final diagnosis.This narrative review aims to summarize the main clinical and laboratory-based findings of the three most common imported arboviruses in Europe. Evidence is extracted from published literature and clinical expertise of European arbovirus experts.We present three cases that highlight similarities and differences between some of the most common travel-related arboviruses imported to Europe. These include a patient with chikungunya virus infection presenting in Greece, a case of dengue fever in Turkey, and a travel-related case of Zika virus infection in Romania.Early diagnosis of travel-imported cases is important to reduce the risk of localized outbreaks of tropical arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya and the risk of local transmission from body fluids or vertical transmission. Given the global relevance of arboviruses and the continuous risk of (re-)emerging arbovirus events, clinicians should be aware of the clinical syndromes of arbovirus fevers and the potential pitfalls in diagnosis.

  • Design, synthesis and evaluation against Chikungunya virus of novel small-molecule antiviral agents.
    Design, synthesis and evaluation against Chikungunya virus of novel small-molecule antiviral agents. [Journal Article]Bioorg Med Chem 2018 Jan 06.BMTardugno R, Giancotti G, De Burghgraeve T, et al. Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, responsible for an acute flu-like illness associated with debilitating arthralgia, which can persist for several months...Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, responsible for an acute flu-like illness associated with debilitating arthralgia, which can persist for several months or become chronic. In recent years, this viral infection has spread worldwide with a previously unknown virulence. To date, no specific antivirals treatments nor vaccines are available against this important pathogen. Starting from the structures of two antiviral hits previously identified in our research group with in silico techniques, this work describes the design and preparation of 31 novel structural analogues, with which different pharmacophoric features of the two hits have been explored and correlated with the inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication in cells. Structure-activity relationships were elucidated for the original scaffolds, and different novel antiviral compounds with EC50 values in the low micromolar range were identified. This work provides the foundation for further investigation of these promising novel structures as antiviral agents against Chikungunya virus.

  • In silico analysis of natural compounds targeting structural and nonstructural proteins of chikungunya virus.
    In silico analysis of natural compounds targeting structural and nonstructural proteins of chikungunya virus. [Journal Article]F1000Res 2017.:1601.FJain J, Kumari A, Somvanshi P, et al.  The compounds identified show promise as potential antivirals, but further in vitro studies are required to test their efficacy against CHIKV.Background: Chikungunya fever presents as a high-grade fever during its acute febrile phase and can be prolonged for months as chronic arthritis in affected individuals. Currently, there are no effective drugs or vaccines against this virus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate protein-ligand interactions of all chikungunya virus (CHIKV) proteins with natural compounds from a MolBase library in order to identify potential inhibitors of CHIKV. Methods: Virtual screening of the natural compound library against four non-structural and five structural proteins of CHIKV was performed. Homology models of the viral proteins with unknown structures were created and energy minimized by molecular dynamic simulations. Molecular docking was performed to identify the potential inhibitors for CHIKV. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) toxicity parameters for the potential inhibitors were predicted for further prioritization of the compounds. Results: Our analysis predicted three compounds, Catechin-5-O-gallate, Rosmarinic acid and Arjungenin, to interact with CHIKV proteins; two (Catechin-5-O-gallate and Rosmarinic acid) with capsid protein, and one (Arjungenin) with the E3. Conclusion: The compounds identified show promise as potential antivirals, but further in vitro studies are required to test their efficacy against CHIKV.

  • Analysis of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 genome provides insight into cell line utility for viral propagation.
    Analysis of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 genome provides insight into cell line utility for viral propagation. [Journal Article]Gigascience 2018 Jan 10.GMiller JR, Koren S, Dilley KA, et al. The C6/36 genome sequence and annotation should enable additional uses of the cell line to study arbovirus vector interactions and interventions aimed at restricting the spread of human disease.Publisher Full TextThe 50-year old Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line is a resource for the detection, amplification, and analysis of mosquito-borne viruses including Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. The cell line is derived from an unknown number of larvae from an unspecified strain of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Toward improved utility of the cell line for research in virus transmission, we present an annotated assembly of the C6/36 genome.The C6/36 genome assembly has the largest contig N50 (3.3 Mbp) of any mosquito assembly, presents the sequences of both haplotypes for most of the diploid genome, reveals independent null mutations in both alleles of the Dicer locus, and indicates a male-specific genome. Gene annotation was computed with publicly available mosquito transcript sequences. Gene expression data from cell line RNA sequence identified enrichment of growth-related pathways and conspicuous deficiency in aquaporins and inward rectifier K+ channels. As a test of utility, RNA sequence data from Zika-infected cells was mapped to the C6/36 genome and transcriptome assemblies. Host subtraction reduced the data set by 89%, enabling faster characterization of non-host reads.The C6/36 genome sequence and annotation should enable additional uses of the cell line to study arbovirus vector interactions and interventions aimed at restricting the spread of human disease.

  • Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Associated with Chikungunya Fever in an Adolescent.
    Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock Associated with Chikungunya Fever in an Adolescent. [Journal Article]J Trop Pediatr 2018 Jan 06.JTSharma PK, Kumar M, Bhandari N, et al. Chikungunya is usually a benign disease, and little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe a 12-year-old boy with rapid onset septic shock and multi-organ failure asso...Publisher Full TextChikungunya is usually a benign disease, and little is known on the occurrence of severe clinical complications. We describe a 12-year-old boy with rapid onset septic shock and multi-organ failure associated with chikungunya fever. Severe sepsis and septic shock can be associated with chikungunya.

  • West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016.
    West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases - United States, 2016. [Journal Article]MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jan 12; 67(1):13-17.MMBurakoff A, Lehman J, Fischer M, et al. Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arbovir...Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses. It excludes dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, as these are primarily nondomestic viruses typically acquired through travel. Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia (DC) reported 2,240 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including 2,150 (96%) WNV disease cases. Of the WNV disease cases, 1,310 (61%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis), for a national incidence of 0.41 cases per 100,000 population. After WNV, the most frequently reported arboviruses were La Crosse (35 cases), Powassan (22), and Jamestown Canyon (15) viruses. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness, maintaining surveillance is important to direct prevention activities.

  • Inactivation of chikungunya virus in blood components treated with amotosalen/ultraviolet A light or amustaline/glutathione.
    Inactivation of chikungunya virus in blood components treated with amotosalen/ultraviolet A light or amustaline/glutathione. [Journal Article]Transfusion 2018 Jan 10.TLaughhunn A, Huang YS, Vanlandingham DL, et al. Robust levels of chikungunya virus inactivation were achieved for platelets in 100% plasma and for RBC components. The licensed amotosalen/ultraviolet A light technology and the amustaline/glutathione ...Publisher Full TextChikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, often co-circulates with the Zika, dengue, and yellow fever viruses in Aedes mosquito-infested areas where cases of arbovirus transfusion-transmitted infections have been reported. Building on past experience to help maintain the availability of safe components during major outbreaks of chikungunya virus in La Reunion, Italy, and Thailand and of Zika virus in the Pacific, the Caribbean, and the Americas, pathogen inactivation is a mitigation strategy to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Inactivation of chikungunya virus was investigated for platelets in 100% plasma using amotosalen/ultraviolet A light, and in red blood cells using amustaline/glutathione.Platelets in 100% plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) were spiked with chikungunya virus. Infectious chikungunya virus titers were measured in contaminated blood products before and after treatment with amotosalen/ultraviolet A light for platelets in 100% plasma and after treatment with amustaline/glutathione for RBCs. Viral infectivity was quantified by plaque assay.The mean chikungunya virus infectivity titers before inactivation were 6.50 log10 plaque-forming units/mL for platelets in 100% plasma and 7.60 log10 plaque-forming units/mL for RBCs. No infectivity was detected after amotosalen/ultraviolet A light or amustaline/glutathione treatment, corresponding to greater than 6.5 log10 plaque-forming units/mL and greater than 7.1 log10 plaque-forming units/mL of inactivation, respectively.Robust levels of chikungunya virus inactivation were achieved for platelets in 100% plasma and for RBC components. The licensed amotosalen/ultraviolet A light technology and the amustaline/glutathione pathogen-reduction system under development may provide an opportunity for comprehensive mitigation of the risk of chikungunya virus transfusion-transmitted infection by plasma, platelets, and RBCs.

  • Outcome of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 100 suspected cases of infectious uveitis.
    Outcome of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 100 suspected cases of infectious uveitis. [Journal Article]J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2018 Jan 10; 8(1):2.JOKharel Sitaula R, Janani MK, Madhavan HN, et al. PCR assay is an accurate technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose the DNA genome in infectious uveitis.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is an important tool in the diagnosis of infectious uveitis. A retrospective, interventional study of PCR analysis of ocular fluid in suspected infectious uveitis cases between January 2014 to July 2016 was done. Nested, real-time and broad range PCR was performed for detection of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus family, Chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, fungus, eubacterium and propionibacterium acne.Total of 100 cases included, mean age was 39.2 ± 15.4 years. Uveitis was unilateral in 82% and granulomatous in 40%. Mean visual acuity at the initial visit and final visit was 0.73 logMar and 0.63 logMar respectively. PCR analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 70.1% patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR analysis was 90.2%, 93.9%, 93.9% and 90.2% respectively. The quantitative value of real-time M. tb. Positive PCR ranged from 32c/ml to 2722 c/ml.PCR assay is an accurate technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose the DNA genome in infectious uveitis.

  • Utility of massive open online courses (MOOCs) concerning outbreaks of emerging and reemerging diseases.
    Utility of massive open online courses (MOOCs) concerning outbreaks of emerging and reemerging diseases. [Journal Article]F1000Res 2017.:1699.FBendezu-Quispe G, Torres-Roman JS, Salinas-Ochoa B, et al. The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, chikungunya, and Zika increase the necessity of knowledgeable and skilled health professionals. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) ...The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases such as Ebola, chikungunya, and Zika increase the necessity of knowledgeable and skilled health professionals. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) arise as opportunities that allow people around the world to participate in higher education courses. A search was conducted on specialized MOOC platforms to find courses related to outbreaks, using terms included in the list of the WHO disease outbreaks from January 1st to December 31 st, 2016. We found seven courses about Ebola, two about Zika, three about the dynamics of epidemics and pandemics, and only one course about dengue, chikungunya, and malaria. Most of the courses were conducted in English. The courses on Ebola, Zika and chikungunya were released after their last outbreak. MOOCs could be used to learn about health issues of global relevance, and with the necessity of fast divulgation of knowledge and skills. Translating the courses into more languages could give these courses more traction, and allow participation of professionals in regions affected by these outbreaks.