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Chikungunya Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil: a surveillance-based analysis.
    Infection-related microcephaly after the 2015 and 2016 Zika virus outbreaks in Brazil: a surveillance-based analysis. [Journal Article]Lancet 2017 Jun 21.Lctde Oliveira WK, de França GVA, Carmo EH, et al. The distribution of infection-related microcephaly after Zika virus outbreaks has varied across time and Brazilian regions. Reasons for these apparent differences remain to be elucidated.On Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration.We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016. We deemed possible Zika virus infections during pregnancy as all suspected cases of Zika virus disease and all initially suspected, but later discarded, cases of dengue and chikungunya fever. We defined confirmed infection-related microcephaly in liveborn infants as the presence of a head circumference of at least 2 SDs below the mean for their age and sex, accompanied by diagnostic imaging consistent with an infectious cause, or laboratory, clinical, or epidemiological results positive for Zika virus or STORCH (infectious agents known to cause congenital infection, mainly syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus). We excluded cases of congenital anomalies or death without microcephaly. We analyse the spatial clustering of these diseases in Brazil to obtain the kernel density estimation.Two distinct waves of possible Zika virus infection extended across all Brazilian regions in 2015 and 2016. 1 673 272 notified cases were reported, of which 41 473 (2·5%) were in pregnant women. During this period, 1950 cases of infection-related microcephaly were confirmed. Most cases (1373 [70·4%]) occurred in the northeast region after the first wave of Zika virus infection, with peak monthly occurrence estimated at 49·9 cases per 10 000 livebirths. After a major, well documented second wave of Zika virus infection in all regions of Brazil from September, 2015, to September, 2016, occurrence of microcephaly was much lower than that following the first wave of Zika virus infection, reaching epidemic levels in all but the south of Brazil, with estimated monthly peaks varying from 3·2 cases to 15 cases per 10 000 livebirths.The distribution of infection-related microcephaly after Zika virus outbreaks has varied across time and Brazilian regions. Reasons for these apparent differences remain to be elucidated.None.

  • Discovery of a single male Aedes aegypti (L.) in Merseyside, England.
    Discovery of a single male Aedes aegypti (L.) in Merseyside, England. [Journal Article]Parasit Vectors 2017 Jun 24; 10(1):309.PVDallimore T, Hunter T, Medlock JM, et al. The finding of the single male Ae. aegypti, while significant, presents no apparent disease risk to public health, and the follow-up survey suggests that there was no established population. However, t...The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions where it is the major vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and more recently Zika virus. Given its importance as a vector of arboviruses and its propensity to be transported to new regions, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has placed Ae. aegypti on a list of potentially invasive mosquito species. It was previously reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1865 and 1919 but did not establish on either occasion. It is now beginning to reappear in European countries and has been recorded in the Netherlands (not established) and Madeira (Portugal), as well as southern Russia, Georgia and Turkey.During summer 2014, a single male Ae. aegypti was captured during mosquito collections in north-western England using a sweep net. Morphological identification complimented by sequencing of the ITS2 rDNA, and cox1 mtDNA regions, confirmed the species. Following confirmation, a programme of targeted surveillance was implemented around the collection site by first identifying potential larval habitats in greenhouses, a cemetery, a farm and industrial units. Despite intensive surveillance around the location, no other Ae. aegypti specimens were collected using a combination of sweep netting, larval dipping, mosquito magnets, BG sentinel traps and ovitraps. All species collected were native to the UK.The finding of the single male Ae. aegypti, while significant, presents no apparent disease risk to public health, and the follow-up survey suggests that there was no established population. However, this report does highlight the need for vigilance and robust surveillance, and the requirement for procedures to be in place to investigate such findings.

  • Suppression of chikungunya virus replication and differential innate responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells during co-infection with dengue virus.
    Suppression of chikungunya virus replication and differential innate responses of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells during co-infection with dengue virus. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 23; 11(6):e0005712.PNRuiz Silva M, Aguilar Briseño JA, Upasani V, et al. Dengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most p...Publisher Full TextDengue and chikungunya are viral diseases transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. With an estimated 390 million infected people per year dengue virus (DENV) currently causes the most prevalent arboviral disease. During the last decade chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks and has expanded its territory causing millions of cases in Asia, Africa and America. The viruses share a common mosquito vector and during the acute phase cause similar flu-like symptoms that can proceed to more severe or debilitating symptoms. The growing overlap in the geographical distribution of these mosquito-borne infections has led to an upsurge in reported cases of DENV/CHIKV co-infections. Unfortunately, at present we have little understanding of consequences of the co-infections to the human host. The overall aim of this study was to define viral replication dynamics and the innate immune signature involved in concurrent DENV and CHIKV infections in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We demonstrate that concomitant infection resulted in a significant reduction of CHIKV progeny and moderate enhancement of DENV production. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of DENV on CHIKV infection occurred independently of DENV replication. Furthermore, changes in type I IFN, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IP-10 production were observed during concomitant infections. Notably, co-infections led to a significant increase in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, cytokines that are widely considered to play a crucial role in the early pathogenesis of both viral diseases. In conclusion, our study reveals the interplay of DENV/CHIKV during concomitant infection and provides a framework to investigate viral interaction during co-infections.

  • Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania.
    Detection of the Northeastern African Rift Valley Fever Virus Lineage During the 2015 Outbreak in Mauritania. [Journal Article]Open Forum Infect Dis 2017; 4(2):ofx087.OFBob NS, Bâ H, Fall G, et al. The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and...PMC Free Full TextPublisher Full TextRift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients.An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania. Overall, 184 suspected cases from different localities were identified by 26 health facilities. Blood samples were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the Institut Pasteur de Dakar (IPD). Sequencing of partial genomes and phylogenetic analyses were performed on RT-PCR-positive samples. As part of routine surveillance at IPD, samples were also screened for dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses by ELISA and RT-PCR.Of the 184 suspected cases, there were 57 confirmed cases and 12 deaths. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences indicated an emergence of a virus that originated from Northeastern Africa. Our results show co-circulation of other arboviruses in Mauritania-dengue, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, and West Nile viruses.The Northeastern Africa lineage of RVF was responsible for the outbreak in Mauritania in 2015. Co-circulation of multiples arboviruses was detected. This calls for systematic differential diagnosis and highlights the need to strengthen arbovirus surveillance in Africa.

  • Immunopathology of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Lessons Learned from Patients and Animal Models.
    Immunopathology of Chikungunya Virus Infection: Lessons Learned from Patients and Animal Models. [Journal Article]Annu Rev Virol 2017 Jun 21.ARNg LFP Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the ...Publisher Full TextChikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas since late 2013. Despite the wealth of research over the past 10 years, there are no commercially available antiviral drugs or vaccines. Treatment usually involves analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Most studies have been focused on understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection through clinical observation and with animal models. In this review, the clinical manifestations of CHIKV that define the disease and the use of relevant animal models, from mice to nonhuman primates, are discussed. Understanding key cellular factors in CHIKV infection and the interplay with the immune system will aid in the development of preventive and therapeutic approaches to combat this painful viral disease in humans. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  • Analytical and clinical performance of a Chikungunya qRT-PCR for Central and South America.
    Analytical and clinical performance of a Chikungunya qRT-PCR for Central and South America. [Journal Article]Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Jun 08.DMEdwards T, Del Carmen Castillo Signor L, Williams C, et al. Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in 2015 causing a pandemic across the continent. Testing during the acute phase of infection relies on qRT-PCR, but available assays have a number of limita...Publisher Full TextChikungunya was introduced into the Americas in 2015 causing a pandemic across the continent. Testing during the acute phase of infection relies on qRT-PCR, but available assays have a number of limitations. A qRT-PCR assay specific to the chikungunya E1 gene was designed using sequence data from contemporary strains. A probit analysis established the 95% limit of detection as 19.6 copies per reaction. We compared the assay with a US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) chikungunya qRT-PCR as the reference standard. The assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 98.4% and 100% in 90 samples retrospectively collected in Guatemala. In a further 74 febrile samples prospectively collected in Ecuador and Guatemala the test had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 98.4%, respectively. Sequencing the nsp4 gene of the discordant positive sample indicated the presence of chikungunya RNA, and mismatches to the primer binding sites of the CDC assay.

  • AIDS, Avian flu, SARS, MERS, Ebola, Zika… what next?
    AIDS, Avian flu, SARS, MERS, Ebola, Zika… what next? [Journal Article, Review]Vaccine 2017 Jun 17.VReperant LA, Osterhaus ADME Emerging infections have threatened humanity since times immemorial. The dramatic anthropogenic, behavioral and social changes that have affected humanity and the environment in the past century have a...Publisher Full TextEmerging infections have threatened humanity since times immemorial. The dramatic anthropogenic, behavioral and social changes that have affected humanity and the environment in the past century have accelerated the intrusion of novel pathogens into the global human population, sometimes with devastating consequences. The AIDS and influenza pandemics have claimed and will continue to claim millions of lives. The recent SARS and Ebola epidemics have threatened populations across borders. The emergence of MERS may well be warning signals of a nascent pandemic threat, while the potential for geographical spread of vector-borne diseases, such as Zika, but also Dengue and Chikungunya is unprecedented. Novel technologies and innovative approaches have multiplied to address and improve response preparedness towards the increasing yet unpredictable threat posed by emerging pathogens.

  • Modelling the effects of global climate change on Chikungunya transmission in the 21(st) century.
    Modelling the effects of global climate change on Chikungunya transmission in the 21(st) century. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2017 Jun 19; 7(1):3813.SRTjaden NB, Suk JE, Fischer D, et al. The arrival and rapid spread of the mosquito-borne viral disease Chikungunya across the Americas is one of the most significant public health developments of recent years, preceding and mirroring the s...Publisher Full TextThe arrival and rapid spread of the mosquito-borne viral disease Chikungunya across the Americas is one of the most significant public health developments of recent years, preceding and mirroring the subsequent spread of Zika. Globalization in trade and travel can lead to the importation of these viruses, but climatic conditions strongly affect the efficiency of transmission in local settings. In order to direct preparedness for future outbreaks, it is necessary to anticipate global regions that could become suitable for Chikungunya transmission. Here, we present global correlative niche models for autochthonous Chikungunya transmission. These models were used as the basis for projections under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios. In a further step, hazard maps, which account for population densities, were produced. The baseline models successfully delineate current areas of active Chikungunya transmission. Projections under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios suggest the likelihood of expansion of transmission-suitable areas in many parts of the world, including China, sub-Saharan Africa, South America, the United States and continental Europe. The models presented here can be used to inform public health preparedness planning in a highly interconnected world.

  • Therapeutic administration of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody reduces the severity of chikungunya virus disease in rhesus macaques.
    Therapeutic administration of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody reduces the severity of chikungunya virus disease in rhesus macaques. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 19; 11(6):e0005637.PNBroeckel R, Fox JM, Haese N, et al. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or ther...Publisher Full TextChikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat CHIKV infections. We recently isolated a panel of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), one (4N12) of which exhibited prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic activity against CHIKV in immunocompromised mice. Here, we describe the development of an engineered CHIKV mAb, designated SVIR001, that has similar antigen binding and neutralization profiles to its parent, 4N12. Because therapeutic administration of SVIR001 in immunocompetent mice significantly reduced viral load in joint tissues, we evaluated its efficacy in a rhesus macaque model of CHIKV infection. Rhesus macaques that were treated after infection with SVIR001 showed rapid elimination of viremia and less severe joint infiltration and disease compared to animals treated with SVIR002, an isotype control mAb. SVIR001 reduced viral burden at the site of infection and at distant sites and also diminished the numbers of activated innate immune cells and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SVIR001 therapy; however, did not substantively reduce the induction of CHIKV-specific B or T cell responses. Collectively, these results show promising therapeutic activity of a human anti-CHIKV mAb in rhesus macaques and provide proof-of-principle for its possible use in humans to treat active CHIKV infections.

  • Determinants of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases : the case of Chikungunya in Indian ocean, 2004-2007.
    Determinants of outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases : the case of Chikungunya in Indian ocean, 2004-2007. [Journal Article]Rev Med Suisse 2017 05 03; 13(561):948-953.RMFlahault A Emerging outbreaks of arboviroses are most often tied to the convergence of a set of factors which have physical and environmental, genetic and biological, ecological, social, political and economic or...Emerging outbreaks of arboviroses are most often tied to the convergence of a set of factors which have physical and environmental, genetic and biological, ecological, social, political and economic origins. Thirteen out of these factors are known as main determinants of emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This paper assesses the role of these factors from exploring the Chikungunya outbreak which occurred in Indian Ocean in 2004-2007, as case study. Chikungunya is an alphavirus borne and transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.