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Chikungunya Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Discovery of a novel antiviral agent targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) of chikungunya virus.
    Discovery of a novel antiviral agent targeting the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4) of chikungunya virus. [Journal Article]Virology 2017 Feb 22.:102-112.VWada Y, Orba Y, Sasaki M, et al. Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection which is a re-emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis. At present, there are no approved therapeutics for CHIKF. Herein, we have inve...Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection which is a re-emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis. At present, there are no approved therapeutics for CHIKF. Herein, we have investigated candidate compounds which can inhibit CHIKV infection. Screening of chemical compound libraries were performed and one candidate, a benzimidazole-related compound designated Compound-A was found to inhibit infection by several CHIKV strains and a Sindbis virus strain at nanomolar concentrations. To investigate the inhibitory mechanism of action, a Compound-A resistant CHIKV (res-CHIKV) was isolated and a key mutation associated with resistance was identified by reverse-genetic recombinant CHIKVs containing amino acid substitutions present in res-CHIKV. These results demonstrated that the target site of Compound-A was the M2295 residue in the nonstructural protein 4 (nsP4), which is located in one of the functional domains of RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). We also confirmed that Compound-A inhibits RdRp function of CHIKV by using CHIKV replicons.

  • Neurologic Manifestation of Chikungunya Virus.
    Neurologic Manifestation of Chikungunya Virus. [Journal Article, Review]Curr Infect Dis Rep 2017 Feb; 19(2):6.CIBrizzi K Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA arbovirus that typically causes fevers and arthralgias, but reports of neurologic findings have become increasingly common. This article reviews our current understan...Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a RNA arbovirus that typically causes fevers and arthralgias, but reports of neurologic findings have become increasingly common. This article reviews our current understanding of CHIKV-associated neurologic manifestations.In the last 5 years, CHIKV endemicity has spread to the Americas and the number of cases of CHIKV-related disease has dramatically increased. Evidence suggests increasing neurovirulence of the virus, particularly among the critically ill. The spectrum of neurologic manifestations of the disease includes encephalitis, myelitis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, but isolated reports of cranial neuropathies and cognitive deficits associated with recent infection also are reported. Though neurologic symptoms associated with CHIKV remain relatively uncommon, their frequency appears to be increasing. Clinicians treating patients with neurologic symptoms from CHIKV endemic areas should be aware of the growing association between CHIKV and neurologic sequelae to help guide diagnostics. Research into the optimal treatment of the disease is needed to inform treatment practices.

  • Chikungunya Infection: a Global Public Health Menace.
    Chikungunya Infection: a Global Public Health Menace. [Journal Article, Review]Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2017 Feb; 17(2):13.CAMathew AJ, Ganapati A, Kabeerdoss J, et al. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been involved in epidemics in African and Asian subcontinents and, of late, has transcended to affect the Americas. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the major vector...Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been involved in epidemics in African and Asian subcontinents and, of late, has transcended to affect the Americas. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the major vectors for CHIKV infection, which results in dissemination of virus to various vital organs. Entry of virus into these tissues causes infiltration of innate immune cells, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells, and adaptive immune cells. Macrophages bearing the replicating virus, in turn, secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-17. Together, this pro-inflammatory milieu induces osteoclastogenesis, bone loss, and erosion. CHIKV is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, rash, and symmetric polyarthritis, which is generally self-limiting. In a subset of cases, however, musculoskeletal symptoms may persist for up to 3-5 years. Viral culture and isolation from blood cells of infected patients are the gold standards for diagnosis of CHIKV. In routine practice, however, assays for anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies are used for diagnosis, as elevated levels in blood of infected patients are noted from 10 days following infection for up to 3-6 months. Early diagnosis of CHIKV is possible by nucleic acid detection techniques. Treatment of acute CHIKV is mainly symptomatic, with analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), and low-dose steroids. No vaccines or anti-viral medicines have been approved for clinical therapy in CHIKV as yet. Hydroxychloroquine and methotrexate have been used in chronic CHIKV infection with variable success.

  • Microbiota activates IMD pathway and limits Sindbis infection in Aedes aegypti.
    Microbiota activates IMD pathway and limits Sindbis infection in Aedes aegypti. [Journal Article]Parasit Vectors 2017 Feb 23; 10(1):103.PVBarletta AB, Nascimento-Silva MC, Talyuli OA, et al. Together, these results suggest that a blood meal is able to activate innate immune pathways, through a nutrient induced growth of microbiota, leading to upregulation of aaREL2 and IMD activation. Micr...Aedes aegypti is the main vector of important arboviruses such as dengue, Zika and chikungunya. During infections mosquitoes can activate the immune pathways Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT to limit pathogen replication.Here, we evaluate the immune response profile of Ae. aegypti against Sindbis virus (SINV). We analyzed gene expression of components of Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways and showed that a blood meal and virus infection upregulated aaREL2 in a microbiota-dependent fashion, since this induction was prevented by antibiotic. The presence of the microbiota activates IMD and impaired the replication of SINV in the midgut. Constitutive activation of the IMD pathway, by Caspar depletion, leads to a decrease in microbiota levels and an increase in SINV loads.Together, these results suggest that a blood meal is able to activate innate immune pathways, through a nutrient induced growth of microbiota, leading to upregulation of aaREL2 and IMD activation. Microbiota levels seemed to have a reciprocal interaction, where the proliferation of the microbiota activates IMD pathway that in turn controls bacterial levels, allowing SINV replication in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. The activation of the IMD pathway seems to have an indirect effect in SINV levels that is induced by the microbiota.

  • Emerging Causes of Arbovirus Encephalitis in North America: Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses.
    Emerging Causes of Arbovirus Encephalitis in North America: Powassan, Chikungunya, and Zika Viruses. [Journal Article, Review]Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2017 Feb; 17(2):12.CNDoughty CT, Yawetz S, Lyons J Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan v...Publisher Full TextArboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes, ticks, or other arthropods. Arboviruses are a common and an increasing cause of human illness in North America. Powassan virus, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus are arboviruses that have all recently emerged as increasing causes of neurologic illness. Powassan virus almost exclusively causes encephalitis, but cases are rare, sporadic, and restricted to portions of North America and Russia. Chikungunya virus has spread widely across the world, causing millions of infections. Encephalitis is a rare manifestation of illness but is more common and severe in neonates and older adults. Zika virus has recently spread through much of the Americas and has been associated mostly with microcephaly and other congenital neurologic complications. Encephalitis occurring in infected adults has also been recently reported. This review will discuss the neuropathogenesis of these viruses, their transmission and geographic distribution, the spectrum of their neurologic manifestations, and the appropriate method of diagnosis.

  • Dengue infection in the nervous system: lessons learned for Zika and Chikungunya.
    Dengue infection in the nervous system: lessons learned for Zika and Chikungunya. [Journal Article]Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Feb; 75(2):123-126.ANPuccioni-Sohler M, Roveroni N, Rosadas C, et al. Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over ti...Publisher Full TextDengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly. In this narrative review, we characterize the impact of the geographic expansion of the vector on the appearance of neurological complications, and highlight the lack of highly accurate laboratory tests for nervous system infections. This represents a challenge for public health in the world, considering the high number of travelers and people living in endemic areas.

  • Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological manifestations possibly related to Zika virus infection in municipalities from Bahia, Brazil, 2015.
    Guillain-Barré syndrome and other neurological manifestations possibly related to Zika virus infection in municipalities from Bahia, Brazil, 2015. [Journal Article]Epidemiol Serv Saude 2017 Jan-Mar; 26(1):9-18.ESMalta JM, Vargas A, Leite PL, et al. most cases reported a clinical picture consistent with acute Zika virus disease, which preceded the occurrence of neurological symptoms.Publisher Full Textto describe the reported cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and other neurological manifestations with a history of dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus infections, in the Metropolitan Region of Salvador and in the municipality of Feira de Santana, Brazil.this is a descriptive study with data of an investigation conducted by the epidemiological surveillance from March to August 2015; to confirm the neurological manifestations, medical diagnosis records were considered, and to prior infection, clinical and laboratory criteria were used.138 individuals were investigated, 57 reported infectious process up to 31 days before neurological symptoms - 30 possibly due to Zika, 13 to dengue, 8 to chikungunya and 6 were inconclusive -; GBS was the most frequent neurological condition (n=46), with predominance of male sex (n=32) and the median age was 44.most cases reported a clinical picture consistent with acute Zika virus disease, which preceded the occurrence of neurological symptoms.

  • Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design.
    Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design. [Journal Article]MBio 2017 Feb 21; 8(1)MBIOTaylor A, Liu X, Zaid A, et al. Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural p...Publisher Full TextMosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleolus. In encephalitic alphaviruses, nuclear translocation induces host cell transcriptional shutoff; however, the role of capsid protein nucleolar localization in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged expression constructs and CHIKV infectious clones, we describe a nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein, previously uncharacterized in CHIKV. Mutation of the NoLS by site-directed mutagenesis reduced efficiency of nuclear import of CHIKV capsid protein. In the virus, mutation of the capsid protein NoLS (CHIKV-NoLS) attenuated replication in mammalian and mosquito cells, producing a small-plaque phenotype. Attenuation of CHIKV-NoLS is likely due to disruption of the viral replication cycle downstream of viral RNA synthesis. In mice, CHIKV-NoLS infection caused no disease signs compared to wild-type CHIKV (CHIKV-WT)-infected mice; lack of disease signs correlated with significantly reduced viremia and decreased expression of proinflammatory factors. Mice immunized with CHIKV-NoLS, challenged with CHIKV-WT at 30 days postimmunization, develop no disease signs and no detectable viremia. Serum from CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice is able to efficiently neutralize CHIKV infection in vitro Additionally, CHIKV-NoLS-immunized mice challenged with the related alphavirus Ross River virus showed reduced early and peak viremia postchallenge, indicating a cross-protective effect. The high degree of CHIKV-NoLS attenuation may improve CHIKV antiviral and rational vaccine design.IMPORTANCE CHIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen capable of causing explosive epidemics of incapacitating joint pain affecting millions of people. After a series of major outbreaks over the last 10 years, CHIKV and its mosquito vectors have been able to expand their range extensively, now making CHIKV a human pathogen of global importance. With no licensed vaccine or antiviral therapy for the treatment of CHIKV disease, there is a growing need to understand the molecular determinants of viral pathogenesis. These studies identify a previously uncharacterized nucleolar localization sequence (NoLS) in CHIKV capsid protein, begin a functional analysis of site-directed mutants of the capsid protein NoLS, and examine the effect of the NoLS mutation on CHIKV pathogenesis in vivo and its potential to influence CHIKV vaccine design. A better understanding of the pathobiology of CHIKV disease will aid the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  • Unusual pattern of chikungunya virus epidemic in the Americas, the Panamanian experience.
    Unusual pattern of chikungunya virus epidemic in the Americas, the Panamanian experience. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 21; 11(2):e0005338.PNCarrera JP, Díaz Y, Denis B, et al. Previous training of clinical, laboratory and vector workers allowed a good caption and detection of the chikungunya cases and fast intervention. It is possible that low/medium vector infestation level...Publisher Full TextChikungunya virus (CHIKV) typically causes explosive epidemics of fever, rash and polyarthralgia after its introduction into naïve populations. Since its introduction in Panama in May of 2014, few autochthonous cases have been reported; most of them were found within limited outbreaks in Panama City in 2014 and Puerto Obaldia town, near the Caribbean border with Colombia in 2015. In order to confirm that Panama had few CHIKV cases compared with neighboring countries, we perform an epidemiological analysis of chikungunya cases reported from May 2014 to July 2015. Moreover, to understand this paucity of confirmed CHIKV cases, a vectorial analysis in the counties where these cases were reported was performed.Chikungunya cases were identified at medical centers and notified to health authorities. Sera samples were analyzed at Gorgas Memorial Institute for viral RNA and CHIKV-specific antibody detection.A total of 413 suspected cases of CHIKV infections were reported, with incidence rates of 0.5 and 0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2014 and 2015, respectively. During this period, 38.6% of CHIKV cases were autochthonous with rash and polyarthralgia as predominant symptoms. CHIKV and DENV incidence ratios were 1:306 and 1:34, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of E1/E2 genomic segment indicates that the outbreak strains belong to the Asian genotype and cluster together with CHIKV isolates from other American countries during the same period. Statistical analysis of the National Vector Control program at the district level shows low and medium vector infestation level for most of the counties with CHIKV cases. This index was lower than for neighboring countries.Previous training of clinical, laboratory and vector workers allowed a good caption and detection of the chikungunya cases and fast intervention. It is possible that low/medium vector infestation level could explain in part the paucity of chikungunya infections in Panama.

  • Persistent RNA virus infections: do PAMPS drive chronic disease?
    Persistent RNA virus infections: do PAMPS drive chronic disease? [Journal Article, Review]Curr Opin Virol 2017 Feb 16.:8-15.COMcCarthy MK, Morrison TE Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known exampl...Publisher Full TextChronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways.