Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.
- Would be IL-6 a missing link between chronic inflammatory rheumatism and depression after chikungunya infection?
Would be IL-6 a missing link between chronic inflammatory rheumatism and depression after chikungunya infection? [Letter]Rheumatol Int 2017 May 26.RIRodriguez-Morales AJ, Hoyos-Guapacha KL, Vargas-Zapata SL, et al.
- [Vertical transmission of chikungunya virus infection. Case Report].
[Vertical transmission of chikungunya virus infection. Case Report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Rev Chil Pediatr 2017 Apr; 88(2):285-288.RCCardona-Correa SE, Castaño-Jaramillo LM, Quevedo-Vélez A Given the high perinatal transmissibility rate of chikungunya virus, this diagnosis should be considered in every newborn child of a mother with suggestive symptoms of chikungunya in the days surroundi...Publisher Full TextChikungunya virus infection is a disease transmitted by vectors, in which vertical transmission was described in years 2005-2006. An infection rate up to 49% in neonates born from mothers with active viremia during labor has been observed. Perinatal infection could results in serious complications and potential cognitive impairment.To describe a newborn with Chikungunya virus infection secundary to vertical transmission. Clínical case: A female newborn is analyzed. She presented with fever and exanthema during her first week of life, elevation of transaminases and thrombocytopenia. Her mother had had symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus infection on the day of the delivery. Specific IgM antibodies against chikungunya were documented and the diagnosis was confirmed.Given the high perinatal transmissibility rate of chikungunya virus, this diagnosis should be considered in every newborn child of a mother with suggestive symptoms of chikungunya in the days surrounding delivery.
- wMel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a Singapore Wolbachia-introgressed Ae. aegypti strain, wMel-Sg.
wMel limits zika and chikungunya virus infection in a Singapore Wolbachia-introgressed Ae. aegypti strain, wMel-Sg. [Journal Article]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 19; 11(5):e0005496.PNTan CH, Wong PJ, Li MI, et al. Our results showed that wMel limits both ZIKV and CHIKV infection when introgressed into a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background. These results also strongly suggest that female Aedes aegypti carryi...Publisher Full TextZika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses are emerging Aedes-borne viruses that are spreading outside their known geographic range and causing wide-scale epidemics. It has been reported that these viruses can be transmitted efficiently by Ae. aegypti. Recent studies have shown that Ae. aegypti when transinfected with certain Wolbachia strains shows a reduced replication and dissemination of dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. The aim of this study was to determine whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia introgressed onto a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background was able to limit ZIKV and CHIKV infection in the mosquito.Five to seven-day old mosquitoes either infected or uninfected with wMel Wolbachia were orally infected with a Ugandan strain of ZIKV and several outbreak strains of CHIKV. The midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were sampled at days 6, 9 and 13 days post infectious blood meal to determine midgut infection and salivary glands dissemination rates, respectively. In general, all wild type Ae. aegypti were found to have high ZIKV and CHIKV infections in their midguts and salivary glands, across all sampling days, compared to Wolbachia infected counterparts. Median viral titre for all viruses in Wolbachia infected mosquitoes were significantly lower across all time points when compared to wild type mosquitoes. Most significantly, all but two and one of the wMel infected mosquitoes had no detectable ZIKV and CHIKV, respectively, in their salivary glands at 14 days post-infectious blood meal.Our results showed that wMel limits both ZIKV and CHIKV infection when introgressed into a Singapore Ae. aegypti genetic background. These results also strongly suggest that female Aedes aegypti carrying Wolbachia will have a reduced capacity to transmit ZIKV and CHIKV.
- Chikungunya virus overcomes polyamine depletion by mutation of nsP1 and the opal stop codon to confer enhanced replication and fitness.
Chikungunya virus overcomes polyamine depletion by mutation of nsP1 and the opal stop codon to confer enhanced replication and fitness. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 May 24.JVMounce BC, Cesaro T, Vlajnić L, et al. Polyamines, small positively-charge molecules present in all cells, play important roles in the replication of DNA and RNA viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) relies on polyamines for translation of the...Publisher Full TextPolyamines, small positively-charge molecules present in all cells, play important roles in the replication of DNA and RNA viruses. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) relies on polyamines for translation of the viral genome upon viral entry, and pharmacological depletion of polyamines limits viral replication. However, the potential development of antiviral resistance necessitates a better understanding of how polyamines function and can be targeted via compounds that alter polyamine levels. We have isolated CHIKV that is resistant to polyamine depletion that contains two mutations in the non-structural protein 1 (nsP1) coding region in combination with mutation to the opal stop codon preceding nsP4. These mutations, in addition to promoting viral replication in polyamine-depleted cells, confer enhanced viral replication in vitro and in vivo The nsP1 mutations enhance membrane-binding and methyltransferase activities, while the stop codon mutation allows increased downstream translation. These mutations, when combined, enhance viral fitness but individual mutants are attenuated in mosquitoes. Together, our results suggest that CHIKV can evolve resistance to polyamine depletion and that pharmaceuticals targeting the polyamine biosynthetic pathway may be best used in combination with other established antivirals to mitigate the development of resistance.IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne virus that has infected millions worldwide. Its expansion into the Americas and rapid adaptation to new mosquito hosts present a serious threat to human health, which we can combat with the development of antiviral therapies as well as understanding how these viruses will mutate when exposed to antiviral therapies. Targeting polyamines, small positively-charged molecules in the cell may be a potential strategy against RNA viruses, including chikungunya virus. Here, we have described virus that is resistant to polyamine depletion and has increased fitness in cells and in full organisms. Mutations in viral genome capping machinery, membrane-binding activity, and a stop codon arise and their altered activities enhance replication in the absence of polyamines. These results highlight strategies by which chikungunya can overcome polyamine depletion and emphasize continued research on developing improved antiviral therapies.
- Uncovering the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements in Aedes mosquito genomes.
Uncovering the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements in Aedes mosquito genomes. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 May 24.JVSuzuki Y, Frangeul L, Dickson LB, et al. Endogenous viral elements derived from non-retroviral RNA viruses were described in various animal genomes. Whether they have a biological function such as host immune protection against related viruse...Publisher Full TextEndogenous viral elements derived from non-retroviral RNA viruses were described in various animal genomes. Whether they have a biological function such as host immune protection against related viruses is a field of intense study. Here, we investigated the repertoire of endogenous flaviviral elements (EFVEs) in Aedes mosquitoes, the vectors of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. Previous studies identified three EFVEs from Ae. albopictus and one from Ae. aegypti cell lines. However, in-depth characterization of EFVEs in wild-type mosquito populations and individuals in vivo has not been performed. We detected the full-length DNA sequence of the previously described EFVEs and their respective transcripts in several Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations from geographically distinct areas. However, EFVE-derived proteins were not detected by mass spectrometry. Using deep sequencing, we detected the production of piRNA-like small RNAs in antisense orientation, targeting the EFVEs and their flanking regions in vivo The EFVEs were integrated in repetitive regions of the mosquito genomes, and their flanking sequences varied among mosquito populations from different geographical regions. We bioinformatically predicted several new EFVEs from a Vietnamese Ae. albopictus population and observed variation in the occurrence of those elements among mosquito populations. Phylogenetic analysis of an Ae. aegypti EFVE suggested that it integrated prior to the global expansion of the species and subsequently diverged among and within populations. Together, this study revealed substantial structural and nucleotide diversity of flaviviral integrations in Aedes genomes. Unraveling this diversity will help to elucidate the potential biological function of these EFVEs.IMPORTANCE Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are whole or partial viral sequences integrated in host genomes. Interestingly, some EVEs have important functions for host fitness and antiviral defense. Because mosquitoes also have EVEs in their genomes, characterizing these EVEs is a prerequisite for their potential use to manipulate the mosquito antiviral response. Here, we focused on EVEs related to the Flavivirus genus, to which dengue and Zika viruses belong, in Aedes mosquito individuals from geographically distinct areas. We showed the existence in vivo of flaviviral EVEs previously identified in mosquito cell lines and we detected new ones. We showed that EVEs have evolved differently in each mosquito population. They produced transcripts and small RNAs, but not proteins, suggesting a function at the RNA level. Our study uncovers the diverse repertoire of flaviviral EVEs in Aedes mosquito populations and contributes to understand their role in the host antiviral system.
- Aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Cambodian children, 2010-2013.
Aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Cambodian children, 2010-2013. [Journal Article]Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 May 24; 6(5):e35.EMHorwood PF, Duong V, Laurent D, et al. Acute meningoencephalitis (AME) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Clinical specimens were collected from children presenting with AME at two C...Publisher Full TextAcute meningoencephalitis (AME) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. Clinical specimens were collected from children presenting with AME at two Cambodian paediatric hospitals to determine the major aetiologies associated with AME in the country. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were screened by molecular and cell culture methods for a range of pathogens previously associated with AME in the region. CSF and serum (acute and convalescent) were screened for antibodies to arboviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). From July 2010 through December 2013, 1160 children (one month to 15 years of age) presenting with AME to two major paediatric hospitals were enroled into the study. Pathogens associated with AME were identified using molecular diagnostics, cell culture and serology. According to a diagnostic algorithm, a confirmed or highly probable aetiologic agent was detected in 35.0% (n=406) of AME cases, with a further 9.2% (total: 44.2%, n=513) aetiologies defined as suspected. JEV (24.4%, n=283) was the most commonly identified pathogen followed by Orientia tsutsugamushi (4.7%, n=55), DENV (4.6%, n=53), enteroviruses (3.5%, n=41), CHIKV (2.0%, n=23) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (1.6%, n=19). The majority of aetiologies identified for paediatric AME in Cambodia were vaccine preventable and/or treatable with appropriate antimicrobials.
- Zika Virus: Obstetric and Pediatric Anesthesia Considerations.
Zika Virus: Obstetric and Pediatric Anesthesia Considerations. [Journal Article]Anesth Analg 2017 Jun; 124(6):1918-1929.A&ATutiven JL, Pruden BT, Banks JS, et al. As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United St...Publisher Full TextAs of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million. Similar to Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, ZIKV is spread to humans by infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, through travel-associated local transmission, via sexual contact, and through blood transfusions. South Florida is an epicenter for ZIKV infection in the United States and the year-round warm climate along with an abundance of mosquito vectors that can harbor the flavivirus raise health care concerns. ZIKV infection is generally mild with clinical manifestations of fever, rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Of greatest concern, however, is growing evidence for the relationship between ZIKV infection of pregnant women and increased incidence of abnormal pregnancies and congenital abnormalities in the newborn, now medically termed ZIKA Congenital Syndrome. Federal health officials are observing 899 confirmed Zika-positive pregnancies and the FDH is currently monitoring 110 pregnant women with evidence of Zika infection. The University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital is uniquely positioned just north of downtown Miami and within the vicinity of Liberty City, Little Haiti, and Miami Beach, which are currently "hot spots" for Zika virus exposure and transmissions. As the FDH works fervently to prevent a Zika epidemic in the region, health care providers at the University of Miami and Jackson Memorial Hospital prepare for the clinical spectrum of ZIKV effects as well as the safe perioperative care of the parturients and their affected newborns. In an effort to meet anesthetic preparedness for the care of potential Zika-positive patients and perinatal management of babies born with ZIKA Congenital Syndrome, this review highlights the interim guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and also suggest anesthetic implications and recommendations. In addition, this article reviews guidance for the evaluation and anesthetic management of infants with congenital ZIKV infection. To better manage the perioperative care of affected newborns, this article also reviews the comparative anesthetic implications of babies born with related congenital malformations.
- Impact of simultaneous exposure to arboviruses on infection and transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
Impact of simultaneous exposure to arboviruses on infection and transmission by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. [Journal Article]Nat Commun 2017 May 19.:15412.NCRückert C, Weger-Lucarelli J, Garcia-Luna SM, et al. The recent emergence of both chikungunya and Zika viruses in the Americas has significantly expanded their distribution and has thus increased the possibility that individuals may become infected by mo...Publisher Full TextThe recent emergence of both chikungunya and Zika viruses in the Americas has significantly expanded their distribution and has thus increased the possibility that individuals may become infected by more than one Aedes aegypti-borne virus at a time. Recent clinical data support an increase in the frequency of coinfection in human patients, raising the likelihood that mosquitoes could be exposed to multiple arboviruses during one feeding episode. The impact of coinfection on the ability of relevant vector species to transmit any of these viruses (that is, their vector competence) has not been determined. Thus, we here expose Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to chikungunya, dengue-2 or Zika viruses, both individually and as double and triple infections. Our results show that these mosquitoes can be infected with and can transmit all combinations of these viruses simultaneously. Importantly, infection, dissemination and transmission rates in mosquitoes are only mildly affected by coinfection.
- Cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection: A systematic review.
Cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection: A systematic review. [Journal Article]F1000Res 2017.:390.FAlvarez MF, Bolívar-Mejía A, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, et al. Physicians should be encouraged to keep divulgating reports on the cardiovascular involvement of chikungunya virus disease, to raise awareness and ultimately encourage suitable diagnosis and interventi...PMC Free Full TextPublisher Full TextIn the last three years, chikungunya virus disease has been spreading, affecting particularly the Americas, producing more than two million cases. In this setting, not only new disease-related epidemiological patterns have been found, but also new clinical findings have been reported by different research groups. These include findings on the cardiovascular system, including clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic alterations. No previous systemic reviews have been found in major databases about it.We performed a systematic review looking for reports about cardiovascular compromise during chikungunya disease. Cardiac compromise is not so common in isolated episodes; but countries where chikungunya virus is an epidemic should be well informed about this condition. We used 6 bibliographical databases as resources: Medline/Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalKey, Ovid and SciELO. Dengue reports on cardiovascular compromise were included as well, to compare both arbovirus' organic compromises. Articles that delved mainly into the rheumatic articular and cutaneous complications were not considered, as they were not in line with the purpose of this study. The type of articles included were reviews, meta-analyses, case-controls, cohort studies, case reports and case series. This systematic review does not reach or performed a meta-analysis.Originally based on 737 articles, our reviewed selected 40 articles with 54.2% at least mentioning CHIKV cardiovascular compromise within the systemic compromise. Cardiovascular manifestations can be considered common and have been reported in France, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Colombia, Venezuela and USA, including mainly, but no limited to: hypotension, shock and circulatory collapse, Raynaud phenomenon, arrhythmias, murmurs, myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive insufficiency, heart failure and altered function profile (Troponins, CPK).Physicians should be encouraged to keep divulgating reports on the cardiovascular involvement of chikungunya virus disease, to raise awareness and ultimately encourage suitable diagnosis and intervention worldwide. More research about cardiovascular involvement and manifestations of systemic Chikungunya virus infection is urgently needed.
- High Frequency of Mayaro Virus IgM among Febrile Patients, Central Brazil.
High Frequency of Mayaro Virus IgM among Febrile Patients, Central Brazil. [Journal Article]Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Jun; 23(6):1025-1026.EIBrunini S, França DDS, Silva JB, et al. Mayaro virus (MAYV), an Aedes mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic to Brazil and other South America countries. We investigated dengue- and chikungunya-negative febrile patients visiting rural areas n...Publisher Full TextMayaro virus (MAYV), an Aedes mosquito-borne alphavirus, is endemic to Brazil and other South America countries. We investigated dengue- and chikungunya-negative febrile patients visiting rural areas near Goiânia, Goiás, and found a high proportion (55%) of MAYV IgM. Our findings suggest the presence of highly endemic foci of MAYV in central Brazil.